Chapter 25-30 Parasites and Iron block copper, Iron causes copper deficiency

Chapter 25: Parasites cause lower copper

The effect of gastrointestinal parasitism on blood copper and hemoglobin levels in sheep

“Copper was administered intramuscularly to parasite infected and noninfected animals. The results showed that parasitism has a depressing effect on blood copper and Hb levels, even when administered parenterally. It is concluded that parasitism can aggravate existing hypocupremia and possibly influence the expression of swayback disease.”  (Swayback is typical of copper deficiency in sheep.)

Conversely, copper is used to kill worms/parasites:

Copper sulfate is used as a molluscicide to treat bilharzia in tropical countries.[27]

“In veterinary practice it is used as an anthelmintic (dewormer), emetic and fungicide and for treating copper deficiency in ruminants. (MERCK, 1996; DOSE, 1993)”

Chapter 26: Iron lowers copper and copper lowers iron

Iron overload can induce mild copper deficiency

High-Iron Consumption Impairs Growth and Causes Copper-Deficiency Anemia in Weanling Sprague-Dawley Rats

And copper lowers iron:

Copper supplementation reverses dietary iron overload-induced pathologies in mice

The obvious question.  If excess iron causes copper deficiency, does it lead to neuropathy or the other conditions associated with copper deficiency? Yes.  As we will see.

Chapter 27: High iron causes neuropathy

Neurotoxic effects of iron overload under high glucose concentration

“Iron overload can lead to cytotoxicity, and it is a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear.”

Well, let me clarify.  Iron blocks copper.  And copper is needed by the nerves!

Iron Homeostasis in Peripheral Nervous System, Still a Black Box? 2014

“Advances: During the past years, much effort has been paid to understand the molecular mechanism involved in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. This has been stimulated by the evidence that iron dyshomeostasis is an initial cause of several disorders, including genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Critical Issues: However, very little has been done to investigate the physiological role of iron in peripheral nervous system (PNS), despite the development of suitable cellular and animal models. Future Directions: To stimulate research on iron metabolism and peripheral neuropathy”

Chapter 28: High iron causes Heart Disease
“Heart problems. Excess iron in your heart affects the heart’s ability to circulate enough blood for your body’s needs. This is called congestive heart failure. Hemochromatosis can also cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias).”

“As the level of iron goes up in your bloodstream, so apparently does your risk for heart attack and stroke.”

Chapter 29: High iron causes Lung Diseases

Serum Hepcidin Levels Are Elevated In COPD And Are Associated With Increased Intracellular Iron In the Lung

Anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – InTech

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death …. underlying mechanisms are complex, including dysregulation in iron …

Why Are Asthma Rates Soaring?: Scientific American

Apr 14, 2011 – Asthma rates have been surging around the globe over the past three ….. This research sheds the light on connection between increased iron …

Chapter 30: High iron causes Cancer

The role of iron in cancer.

“Numerous laboratory and clinical investigations over the past few decades have observed that one of the dangers of iron is its ability to favour neoplastic cell growth. The metal is carcinogenic due to its catalytic effect on the formation of hydroxyl radicals, suppression of the activity of host defence cells and promotion of cancer cell multiplication. In both animals and humans, primary neoplasms develop at body sites of excessive iron deposits.”

Iron, radiation, and cancer. › … › Environ Health Perspect › v.87; Jul 1990

“Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer.”

Cancer Project / Iron: The Double-Edged Sword…/

“Iron encourages the formation of cancer-causing free radicals. Of course, the body needs a certain amount of iron for healthy blood cells. But beyond this rather small amount, iron becomes a dangerous substance, acting as a catalyst for the formation of free radicals. Because of this, research studies have shown that higher amounts of iron in the blood mean higher cancer risk.”

Iron and Cancer | e-Journal of Traditional & Complementary Medicine

“Iron is a powerful stimulus for cancer growth, invasion and metastasis.”

Iron’s Dangers

“The pioneer researcher in the role of iron in immunity believed that an excess of dietary iron contributed to the development of leukemia and lymphatic cancers.”
Breast Cancer and Iron › Women’s Health

“A relatively new piece in the breast cancer prevention puzzle is beginning to come to light. A study just published in the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition is the latest to point out an apparent link between elevated iron levels and an increased risk of breast cancer.”

Iron in Men
“Iron acts as a cancer-promoting agent by two separate yet synergistic mechanisms: 1) by producing “free radicals,” and 2) by feeding cancer cells.”

Iron, calcium linked to lung cancer…/Iron-calcium-linked-to-lung-cancer

Dec 5, 2005 – Iron and calcium are linked to a higher risk of lung cancer in new research from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Iron-regulating protein is strong predictor of breast cancer prognosis …

Aug 5, 2010 – A new study may soon help to spare some women with breast cancer from having to undergo invasive and toxic treatments for their disease.

The role of iron in infections and cancer. › IronIron is an oxidant as well as a nutrient for invading microbial and neoplastic cells. Excessive iron in specific tissues and cells (iron loading) promotes …

Iron enhances tumor growth
Idiopathic hemochromatosis is associated with a high risk of primary liver cancer. To test the hypothesis that iron enhances tumor growth, we have conducted the …

Cancer and Iron – IMPPC

Elevated iron stores are linked to an increased risk of cancer and cancer mortality . One third of HH patients will develop hepatocellular carcinoma if treatment is …

Iron and colorectal cancer risk: human studies.